User Database In Sql Server – Understanding SQL Server security is an important skill. Greg Larsen discusses SQL Server authentication methods in this article; Explanation of logins and database users.
Setting up and managing SQL Server security is an important part of building and maintaining your SQL Server environment. SQL Server security is a huge topic that cannot be covered in a single article. This article begins with some basics of SQL Server security: SQL Server authentication methods; Logins and database users.
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For Windows authentication, the user must first authenticate to Windows with their login name and password. After the user authenticates to Windows, they can connect to SQL Server using Windows authentication. that is, their Windows account gets access to SQL Server through a login (more on logins later). Windows authentication is closely related to Windows security, and the so-called
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But there are times when people are unable to connect to Windows. SQL authentication comes in. SQL authentication is less secure than Windows authentication. Connect to SQL Server using SQL authentication; A person must enter a login name and password when joining. The SQL Authenticated login password is stored in the main database. Since the password is stored in a SQL database, it is easier to crack. It can also be saved and restored using a database backup, so it is less secure than using Windows authentication.
Windows authentication is the default authentication method when installing an instance of SQL Server. SQL authentication support; SQL Server must be configured for support.
Authentication. When using the mixing mode; Both Windows and SQL authentication can be used to connect to SQL Server. If SQL Server is not configured to support mixed mode. Only Windows accounts can connect to SQL Server.
Because SQL authentication is less secure than Windows authentication; If you need to support users or applications that cannot connect to Windows, we recommend that you configure your SQL Server instance to support mixed mode only. Although Windows authentication is more secure and is the recommended practice for connecting to SQL Server, many custom application software vendors still do not support connecting with Windows authentication.
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When installing SQL Server; It has the option to support Windows authentication or both, which is called mixed mode. During the installation process As shown in Figure 1, you choose to use mixed mode when defining the database engine configuration.
Windows authentication is selected by default, as shown by the red arrow in Figure 1. If you need to support Windows and SQL Server authentication. The “Mix Mode” radio button must be selected. When this button is pressed, the SA account password fields will be enabled. You must set a password for your SA account. If only Windows authentication is selected; SA account is disabled. To secure the SA account, you can enable and then disable the SA account while using mixed mode.
There are several ways to verify that an authentication method is configured. One such way is to use SQL Server Management Studio (SSMS). to use SSMS; First, right-click the instance name and select Properties. When I do this in my example. The properties page shown in Figure 2 appears.
Figure 2 shows that my example supports mixed-mode authentication, as the radio button next to the red arrow is enabled.
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Another way to check installed authentication methods is to use TSQL code. The code in Listing 1 shows how to set the authentication mode.
You may want to change the authentication settings of an instance of SQL Server. This can happen if you use default settings during installation that only support Windows authentication and connect with SQL Server authentication only. Or you can make your instance more secure by removing SQL Server authentication. You can easily change your authentication settings on the SSMS Properties page, as shown in Figure 2.
If I want to modify my instances to only support Windows authentication, click the “Windows authentication mode” button in Figure 2; Then click “OK” to apply the changes. After changing the property I need to restart my instance for this change to take effect.
To connect to SQL Server, you must have access to SQL Server. allows access through
Creating Logins And Users In Sql Server
And stored in the main database. There is only one exception, and that is accessing a busy database. With embedded databases, users connect directly to the database without having to log in to the main database. More about databases in the following articles.
There are three types of logins in the main database: Windows user; Windows group and SQL. Let’s review these different login types.
A Windows user login provides access to a single Windows user. When this login type is created, a password is not required to set up the login in SQL Server. This type of login requires you to first verify your credentials by logging on to a Windows domain. The Windows domain stores the password.
SQL Server login is similar to Windows login in that it gives a single user access to SQL Server, but differs from Windows login in that the SQL login password is stored in the master database. Therefore, as shown in Figure 3, when entering SQL Server login information, a password is required for login.
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Figure 3 can allow SQL Server login to enforce Windows password policy and expiration, requiring the user to change the password at first login. Microsoft added these new passwords when SQL Server 2005 was released. Applications can use the NetValidatePasswordPolicy API to support these new password features.
The last login type; Windows grouping is similar to Windows login, but slightly different. Windows group login provides access to an instance of SQL Server for any Windows login that is a member of the group. Windows groups are a great way to provide access to multiple Windows accounts and provide a single sign-on to SQL Server. By using a Windows group, access to the SQL Server instance can be maintained by adding or removing group members. Using Windows Groups reduces security management efforts and solves login security issues.
If you look at the bottom of the screenshot in Figure 3, you will see a “Default database” setting for login. The default database setting when creating an account is the “main” database. When setting up the login You can change the default database to any database on the server. The best practice is to set the default database to a database that the user uses when connecting to SQL Server.
Windows logins are considered more secure because of the way the login password is stored. Your Windows logon password is stored with true encryption. If the SQL login password is not encrypted. Instead, it is hashed. The SQL login is hashed, making it easier to crack the password. Windows logins require domain administrators to set up a login name and password, while SQL logins require database administrators to set up a login name and password. Managing domain administrator login passwords provides a layer of security commonly known as segregation of duties. By separating the responsibilities of creating and managing Windows logons and managing and accessing databases, SQL Server provides additional security controls for accessing data stored in SQL Server.
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Creating a SQL Server login allows users to connect to SQL Server. However, a single login does not give users access to the data in the various databases on the server. To read and/or write data to the database for logging in; Login requires access to one or more databases. If necessary, you can set up a login to access multiple databases on a single instance.
Database user is not the same as login. Login allows a user or application to connect to an instance of SQL Server, while database users provide login privileges to access the database. All databases that require login must specify a database user, unless the administrator has enabled login. If an account has administrator privileges; They have access to all databases without being assigned a database user. The relationship between a login and a database user is called a user mapping. User mappings for logins can be created when the login is created or later to configured accounts.
Shows how to specify a user map when creating a new login; I will create
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