Shell Script To Send Email – In the 1960s, the best practice in software development was to test your code as you wrote it. The pioneers of software development during this period were proponents of various levels of testing; Some recommended “unit” testing (such as unit test shell scripts) and others did not, but both recognized the importance of testing code.
Executable testing was probably first introduced to the Apollo project in the mid-1960s by Margaret Hamilton, where she developed a type of executable verification that we now call “static code analysis”. He called it “higher-end software,” meaning software that works with other software and not directly on the problem domain. Its parent software examines the source code for patterns known to cause integration problems.
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In the 1970s, practical tests were completely forgotten. Sure, people will make apps and manually push them around, but as long as the house doesn’t burn down around them, they think the code is “free.” The result is code in production worldwide for over 35 years that is poorly tested and often does not work properly or to the satisfaction of its customers.
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The idea of testing programmers on the go came back in the mid-1990s, although most programmers still don’t do it. Infrastructure engineers and system administrators test their scripts even less well than programmers inspect their application code.
As we enter an era where the rapid deployment of complex solutions with many independent components, and “cloud” infrastructure requires us to manage thousands of VMs and containers at an unmanageable scale the manual method, the importance of being able to perform, cannot be ignored the automatic testing and verification during the development and installation process; not just for application programmers, but for everyone involved in IT work.
With the advent of devops (cross-pollinating skills, methods and tools for development and operations) and trends such as “infrastructure as code” and “automate everything”, the shell scripting for unit testing has become a core skill for programmers, testers. , Systems Supervisor and Infrastructure Engineer.
In this series, we’ll introduce the concept of unit testing shell scripts, and then explore a number of unit testing frameworks that can help accomplish this task and be sustainable at scale.
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. Later in this series, we’ll discuss version control systems and workflows that application developers use that can be effective and useful for infrastructure engineers as well.
Vivek Gite has released a sample shell script to monitor disk usage and generate email alerts when certain filesystems exceed thresholds. Here is his article: https://www.cyberciti.biz/tips/shell-script-to-watch-the-disk-space.html. Let’s take this as a test item.
The command to prevent newlines from output as suggested in Per Lindahl’s comment is as follows:
Vivek continues to refine the script beyond this point, but this version will serve the purpose of this article.
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A few simple rules for automated functional testing, whether testing application code or scripts or any other type of software:
They may indicate that the script may not work at all. This is normal for any type of Shell Scripts unit test for any type of application. There are three options, not two:
For practical reasons, the third result is the same as the second; We need to find what went wrong and fix it. So basically we think of these things as binary: pass or fail.
In this case, we want to verify that the script runs as expected given the different input values. Plus, we don’t want to pollute our checks with additional checks.
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If we look at the code below the test, we can see that the script is called when the disk usage reaches 90%.
In accordance with generally accepted good practice in unit testing, we want to define separate instances to test each behavior that we expect for the first instance.
Like this. We don’t need to look at each disk usage percentage. We just need to look at the behavior at the border. Therefore, the minimum incidence for critical coverage is:
In accordance with accepted best practices for isolating shell scripts for unit testing, we want to ensure that each case can fail for one reason: the expected behavior will not occur. As much as possible, we aim to place the check so that there are no other reasons for the case to fail.
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) to ensure that external factors do not affect the automatic detection. There are times when we cannot control external factors or when doing so requires more time, effort and expense than is worth testing and/or there are unknown events that may have little or no impact if they occur. This is a matter of your professional judgment. In general, do your best to avoid creating dependencies on factors outside the scope of the test code.
Order work. This is beyond our scope. This is the responsibility of the custodian of the necessary supplies.
. Mocks represent real components and provide predefined outputs to drive the behavior of the system in a controlled manner, allowing us to reliably verify the behavior of the test code.
We found that the script sends an email notification when a file system reaches its usage limit. We don’t want our group check to throw up useless emails, so let’s laugh it off
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This script is a good example to demonstrate mocking these commands as we will do it for others
To carry our test cases. We do not want the test results to vary depending on the actual disk usage of the system on which we are running the test suite. We do not verify disk usage; We check the logic of the script. When the script runs in production, it checks for disk usage. What we are doing here is validation, not production work. Therefore, we need a fake or “mock”.
Order by name definition. We want the Alias command to output the test values in the same format as its output
. Here’s one way to do it (it’s all one line; read it below):
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Skip the “-HP” argument when running the script so that the system doesn’t complain that -HP is an unknown command. the alias
So when the script runs, it only mocks the minimum required to handle the test case. We want our test cases to be as close to the “real thing” as possible to avoid false positives.
Mocks created using the mock library can return a predefined value when called. Our approach to mocking the
The order represents the work of the irony; We provide predefined results to return when calling the code under test
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We want to know if the script is trying to send email in the right conditions, but we
Order first. We need to build something that we can check after each test case. One way is to write a value to a file if
Is called, and then check the value in the test case. This is shown in the example below. Other methods are also possible.
Mocks created using the mock library can count the number of calls they are called by the test code and we can check the expected number of calls. Our approach to mocking the
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Automatic or executable checking at any level of abstraction, for any type of application or script, in any language, usually involves three steps. These usually go by the names:
Perhaps the reason for this is that everyone loves alliteration, especially the letter A because the word “alliteration” begins with the letter A.
It’s a good step for us so we don’t have to interpret a lot of complicated logic if it’s different in the test room. For our first example here, we’re not using any test frameworks or libraries, so we’ll check the results of each case with if/else blocks. In the next part we will play with the unit test shell script system for the shell language and see how it works.
First you’ll notice that we’re using bash to test a plain old .sh file. That is very good. It’s not necessary, but it’s okay.
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Order. This causes the shell to expand the test username when the shell is asked to run the diskusage.sh script. In most use cases we won’t pass an alias to the shell, but unit testing shell scripts is an exception.
The “first” comment is for people familiar with the unit test shell script system that built and destroyed commands. These are often called “before” and “after”, and there is usually one pair that spans the entire test suite and another pair that runs for each test case.
, the initialization of the test result file, and the initialization of the test case counter are executed only once at the beginning of the test suite. there is something
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