Sending Html Email Using Python – Watch Now This tutorial has a related video course created by the Real Python team. To deepen your understanding, read it along with our written guide: Sending emails with Python
You probably found this tutorial because you want to send email with Python. Maybe you want to get email reminders of your code, send confirmation emails to users when they create an account, or send an email to organization members to remind them of their payments. Sending emails manually is time-consuming and error-prone, but it’s easy to automate with Python.
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At the end of this tutorial, you will find several transactional email services that come in handy when you want to send a large number of emails.
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Uses RFC 821 protocol for SMTP. The examples in this tutorial use the Gmail SMTP server to send email, but the same principles apply to other email services. While most email providers use the same connection ports as in this guide, you can do a quick Google search to confirm yours.
To get started with this guide, set up a Gmail account or set up an SMTP configuration server that will reject emails you send and send them instead of a command prompt. Both options are listed below for you. A local SMTP configuration server can be useful for troubleshooting email functionality to ensure that email functionality is error-free before sending email.
If you plan to use a Gmail account to send your email, I recommend setting up a Drop account to develop your code. This is because you need to adjust your Gmail account’s security settings to access your Python code, and there’s a chance you’ll accidentally expose your login details. Also, I found that the test account’s inbox quickly filled up with test emails, which is reason enough to set up a new Gmail account for development.
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. When testing email functionality, you can use this to simulate multiple addresses pointing to the same email.
If you don’t want to compromise your Gmail account’s security settings, check out Google’s documentation on how to get login credentials for your Python script using the OAuth2 authentication framework.
A pre-installed module with Python. Instead of sending emails to specified addresses, it intercepts them and prints their contents to the console. Running a local configuration server means you don’t have to encrypt messages or use credentials to access your email server.
All emails sent via this server are dropped and displayed as a byte object for each line in the terminal window:
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For the rest of the guide, I’ll assume you’re using a Gmail account, but if you’re using a local setup server, use
Your SMTP server and use port 1025 instead of port 465 or 587. Furthermore, you do not have to use
Before sending emails with HTML content and attachments, learn how to send plain text emails with Python. These are emails that you write in a simple text editor. No fancy stuff like text formatting or hyperlinks. You will find out a little later.
When sending e-mails through Python, make sure that your SMTP connection is encrypted so that your message and login credentials are not easily accessible to others. SSL (Secure Sockets Layer) and TLS (Transport Layer Security) are two protocols used to encrypt SMTP connections. You do not need to use any of these if you are using a local configuration server.
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In both cases, Gmail encrypts emails using TLS, which is the secure successor to SSL. According to Python’s security policy, it is recommended to use
From the ssl module. This will load the system’s trusted CA certificates, enable hostname verification and certificate validation, and try to select secure protocol and cipher settings.
Smtplib is Python’s built-in module for sending email to any Internet machine with an SMTP or ESMTP lister daemon.
First, it is of course safe and speeds up a slightly shorter connection
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Validates the hostname and its certificates and optimizes connection security. Fill in your email address instead
It is safe to store your email password in your code, especially if you plan to share it with others. Instead, use it
Allows the user to type their password when the script runs, as in the example above. If you don’t want to display the password on the screen, you can include and use the Getpass module
To create a secure connection from the start, we can create a secure SMTP connection and encrypt it
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, contains the SMTP connection and allows access to its methods. I recommend specifying your SMTP server and port at the beginning of the script for easy configuration.
We used in the previous example. To prevent your code from crashing if something goes wrong, make sure your main code a
If necessary, you don’t need to use it if you don’t want to check the server’s SMTP service extensions
After you have established a secure SMTP connection using one of the above methods, you can send your email
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After import, I recommend defining the email addresses and message content at the top of the script, so you can easily change them:
Shows as the email subject, and text after newlines is treated as the message body.
For comparison, here is a code example that sends a plain text email over an SMTP connection
, etc.), or if you want to add images, hyperlinks or responsive content, HTML is very useful. The most common type of email today is MIME (Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions) multipart email, which combines HTML and plain text. MIME messages are handled by Python
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Not all email clients display HTML content, and some people choose to only send plain text messages for security reasons, so it’s important to include a plain text alternative to HTML messages. The email client will display the latest multipart application first, adding the HTML message after the plain text version.
In this example, you first define plain text and an HTML message as a string literal, and then save it as such
Message and is sent through a secure connection with an e-mail server. Be sure to add the HTML message after the plain text alternative, as email clients will try to display the last part.
To send binary files to an email server designed to handle text data, they must be encoded before transport. This is usually done using Base64, which encodes binary data into printable ASCII characters.
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Message accepts parameters in RFC5233-style key/value pairs, which are stored in a dictionary and passed to the .add_header method of the Message database class.
Imagine you want to send an email to the members of your organization to remind them to pay their taxes. Or maybe you want to send your classmates personalized emails with grades for their latest submissions. These tasks are a breeze in Python.
A simple starting point for sending multiple personalized emails is to create a CSV (custom separated values) file that contains all the necessary personal information. (Remember not to share other people’s personal data without their permission.) A CSV file can be thought of as a simple spreadsheet, with the first row often being a column header.
, which I saved in the same folder as the Python code. It contains names, addresses and classes for a fictional collection of people. I used to
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Constructed to check that all emails go to my mailbox, in this example [email protected]:
When creating a CSV file, separate your values with commas, without white spaces around them.
The following code example shows you how to open a CSV file and overwrite the contents (skipping the header line). I printed the code to make sure it worked properly before sending the email to all my contacts
If the values in your CSV file contain spaces on both sides, you can remove them
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You can enter custom content to fill curly brackets str.format(). For example,
Since Python 3.6, string formatting can be done more elegantly with F-strings, but these require placeholders to be defined before the F-string. It is older to define the email message at the beginning of the script, and fill in the placeholders for each contact when searching the CSV file.
With this in mind, you can create a general message board that can
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