Send Email In Shell Script

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Sendmail is a very transparent and simple MTA (Mail Transfer Agent) that implements SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) among other things and is used to forward emails. Although a commercial version called “sendmail” is available, the sendmail we are working with in this article is the UNIX-based version with all Linux distributions and *BSD (FreeBSD). , OpenBSD and variants). Using the send command may be the easiest way to send emails in the Linux shell CLI (Command Line Interface), in addition to mailx, it will be easier to send and receive messages from the command line in conjunction with mail. . As the name suggests, Send itself can only send emails and does not store received emails in POP or IMAP mailboxes.

Send Email In Shell Script

Send Email In Shell Script

The first interesting piece of information we need to test mail is the path to the binary file that will be executed if we pass mail on our command line. To find this out we will use which command as shown below:

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The above output is the full path to our send command binary file /usr/sbin/sendmail which you should consider the steps below.

If you want to customize the Sendmail configuration files, you can find them in the /etc/mail/ directory on UNIX (FreeBSD, OpenBSD) and Linux (CentOS, Fedora, Debian, Ubuntu) systems. Sendmail’s main configuration file is /etc/mail/, but editing that is not part of this tutorial. A good place for more information is the Message Man page, which you can view by running the Send Man command. Now let’s move to the interesting part of this send command line tutorial.

To quickly check that the send command is working properly, for example using shell scripts, command line or even from PHP scripts (PHP supports mail to send emails from PHP scripts – you can set the mail path in your php.ini) you can issue the following command on your UNIX or Linux system .

Obviously, [email protected] is the email address you want to send the test email to. This send command line example sends an email to [email protected] with the subject “send test” if the test succeeds. You can also send longer emails with a subject, body, and additional headers if you want, but this is usually not necessary to test whether the delivery is working. However, here’s how you can do it:

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1.) Create a mail.txt (or whatever you want) file in ~/mail.txt with Vim or Nano or your text editor of choice.

2.) Post this content, but of course correct the email addresses, as these are examples of mail orders.

That’s it – now you can test mail sent from the command line and send full emails including headers from the Linux/Unix shell. Below is an example of what a simple mail test looks like on a live system.

Send Email In Shell Script

One thing I’d like to add is that PHP and other scripts can often access email binaries and can be used to send spam and phishing messages, which can happen on shared servers with compromised accounts. Outdated CMS or weak passwords. If you want to know which script or POSIX user is spamming, you can issue the command below and monitor the output:

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While Sendmail may pose some risks on shared or secure systems, it is an excellent lightweight MTA that can be used to send email directly from shell scripts, PHP applications, or the command line. It also automatically negotiates STARTTLS for encrypted email transfers if supported by a remote SMTP server, which is a useful security feature.

How do I manage my VPS server? We provide you a very simple interface to manage your VPS unlimited bandwidth from… How to Install MySQL Here’s a step-by-step guide on how to install and maintain MySQL for Unlimited VPS Hosting. You… How to Install Apache2 and PHP5 on Ubuntu Installing Apache2 and PHP5 on Ubuntu is very easy: # apt-get install apache2# apt-get… Learn how to install MySQL on Ubuntu Learn how to install MySQL on DDoS protected Dedicated Server or DDoS Protected VPS … Installing Node.js on CentOs 5 Installing Node.js on a cheap VPS with unlimited bandwidth is very easy. For more information… In the 1960s, testing your code as you wrote it was considered a basic good practice in software engineering. At that time, the pioneers of software development were proponents of various testing standards; Some advocated “unit” testing (such as unit testing shell scripts) and some did not, but all recognized the importance of testing code.

Execution testing was first introduced in the mid-1960s by Margaret Hamilton during the Apollo project, where she developed a form of verification that we now call “static code analysis.” He calls it “high-level software”, by which he means software that works with other software, not directly against the problem domain. The advanced software analyzed the source code for patterns that caused integration problems.

In the year By 1970, people had forgotten about practical tests. Sure, people ran apps and added them here and there, but as long as the building wasn’t burning around them, they thought the code was “good enough.” The result has been a product for over 35 years around the world, it has been thoroughly tested, and in many cases it does not work as intended, or satisfy customers.

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The idea of ​​testing as a programmer evolved back in the mid-1990s, although most programmers still don’t do it today. Infrastructure engineers and system administrators test their scripts with less responsibility than programmers test their application code.

As we move into an era where rapid deployment of complex solutions with many autonomous components is becoming commonplace and requires us to manage thousands of VMs and containers using “cloud” infrastructure at unmanageable volumes. Manual methods, which can be applied throughout the development and delivery process, the importance of automated testing and validation cannot be ignored; Not only for application programmers, but for everyone involved in IT work.

With the advent of DevOps (cross-development and operations capabilities, methods and tools) and trends like “infrastructure as code” and “automating everything”, unit testing shell scripts have become a core skill for programmers, testers and programmers. System administrators and infrastructure engineers.

Send Email In Shell Script

In this series of posts, we’ll introduce the idea of ​​shell scripts for unit testing, and explore various unit testing frameworks that help make this task practical and sustainable.

How To Send Email From The Linux Command Line

. Later in this series, we’ll touch on version control systems and workflows that application developers use, and that can be effective and useful for infrastructure engineers as well.

Vivek Gite has posted a sample shell script to monitor disk usage and generate an email notification when certain file systems exceed the limit. His article is here: Let’s use that as a test subject.

As suggested in Per Lindahl’s comment, the command to remove line breaks in the output looks like this.

Vivek will continue to improve the script beyond that point, but this version will serve the purpose of this post.

Bash/shell Script To Send Email In Linux

Two rules for automated functional testing, whether we are testing application code or script or any other type of software:

You may find that the script is completely executable. This is common for any type of application within the shell scripting framework. There are three possible outcomes instead of two:

For practical purposes, the third result is similar to the second; We need to figure out what happened and fix it. So we generally think of these things as binary: pass or fail.

Send Email In Shell Script

In this case, we’re interested in making sure that the script works as expected given different input values. We don’t want to contaminate our class checks with another check that’s bigger than that.

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When we examine the code being tested, we see that the script is called when the disk usage reaches 90%.

As a generally accepted good practice for unit testing, we want to define different cases for each initial condition to test each expected behavior.

We don’t need to check multiple disk usage percentages one by one. We only need to check the behavior on the border. So the minimum set of cases to provide maximum coverage would be as follows.

Keep it up

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