Python Script To Send Email – Watch Now This tutorial has a related video tutorial created by The Real Python Team. Check out this accompanying written tutorial to deepen your understanding: Emailing with Python
You probably found this tutorial because you want to send email using Python. You might want to receive email reminders from your code, send a confirmation email to users when they create an account, or send email to members of your organization to remind them of their dues. Sending email manually is a time-consuming and error-prone task, but it’s easy to automate with Python.
Python Script To Send Email
At the end of this tutorial you will find some transactional email services that will be useful when you want to send a large number of emails.
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Uses RFC 821 protocol for SMTP. The examples in this tutorial will use the Gmail SMTP server to send email, but the same principles apply to other email services. Although most email providers use the same login ports as in this tutorial, you can run a quick Google search to confirm yours.
To get started with this tutorial, create a Gmail account for development or set up an SMTP debugging server that intercepts emails you send and prints them on the command line. Both options are presented for you below. A local SMTP debugging server can be useful for fixing any problems with email functionality and for ensuring that your email functionality is error free before sending any email.
If you decide to use a Gmail account to send your emails, I highly recommend creating an account for developing your code. This is because you will need to adjust your Gmail account security settings to allow access from your Python code, and because there is a chance that you may accidentally expose your credentials. I also found that my test account’s inbox quickly filled with test email, which is reason enough to create a new Gmail account for development.
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, When testing email functionality, you can use it to simulate multiple addresses that all point to the same inbox.
If you don’t want to reduce your Gmail account security settings, check out Google’s documentation on how to get access credentials for your Python script using the OAuth2 authorization framework.
Module that comes pre-installed with Python. Instead of sending emails to the specified addresses, it drops them and prints their contents to the console. Running a local debug server means you don’t have to worry about encrypting messages or using credentials to connect to an email server.
Any email sent through this server will be truncated and displayed in the terminal window as a byte object for each line:
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For the rest of the tutorial, I’m going to assume you’re using a Gmail account, but if you’re using a local debug server, just be sure to use
Use port 1025 as the SMTP server and instead of port 465 or 587. Also, you won’t need to use
Before we get into sending email with HTML content and attachments, you’ll learn how to send plain text email using Python. These are emails that you can write in a simple text editor. No fancy stuff like text formatting or hyperlinks. You will come to know after a while.
When sending email through Python, you should make sure that your SMTP connection is encrypted so that your messages and connection credentials cannot be easily accessed by others. SSL (Secure Sockets Layer) and TLS (Transport Layer Security) are two protocols that can be used to encrypt SMTP connections. It is not necessary to use any of these when using a local debug server.
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In either case, Gmail will encrypt the email using TLS, as it is the more secure successor to SSL. According to Python security reasons, it is highly recommended to use
From ssl module. It will load the system’s trusted CA certificates, enable hostname checking and certificate verification, and attempt to choose an appropriately secure protocol and encryption setting.
Smtplib is Python’s built-in module for sending email to any Internet machine with an SMTP or ESMTP listener daemon.
Firstly, because it creates a connection that is secure from the start and a bit more concise than before
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Validates the hostname and its certificates and optimizes connection security. Be sure to fill in your own email address instead
Storing your email password in your code is not a secure practice, especially if you plan to share it with others. use instead
To allow the user to type in their password when running the script, as in the example above. If you don’t want your password to appear on your screen when you type it, you can import the getpass module and use
To create a secure connection, we can create an insecure SMTP connection and encrypt it using
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, which embeds an SMTP connection and allows you to access its methods. I recommend setting your SMTP server and port at the beginning of your script for easy configuration.
Which we used in the previous example. To make sure your code doesn’t hang if something goes wrong, make your main code a
If needed, it is not necessary to use it unless you want to check the SMTP service extension of the server
After starting a secure SMTP connection using any of the above methods, you can send your email
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I recommend setting the email address and message content at the top of your script after import, so you can easily change them:
Appears as the subject of the message and the text following the newlines will be treated as the body of the message.
For comparison, here is a code example that sends a plain text email over a secure SMTP connection
, and so on), or if you want to add an image, hyperlink or responsive content, HTML is very useful. The most common type of email today is MIME (Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions) multipurpose email, which combines HTML and plain text. MIME messages handled by Python
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Since not all email clients display HTML content by default, and some people choose to receive plain text email for security reasons, it is important to include a plain text alternative to HTML messages. As the email client will render the last multi-part attachment first, be sure to add the HTML message after the plain text version.
In this example, you first define the plain text and HTML messages as string literals, and then save them as
Messages and email are sent through your secure connection to the server. Remember to add the HTML message after the plain text option, as email clients will try to render the last part first.
To send binary files over email servers designed to work with text data, they must be encoded before transfer. This is usually done using Base64, which encodes binary data into printable ASCII characters.
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Message accepts parameters in the form of RFC5233 key/value pairs, which are stored in a dictionary and passed to the .add_header method of the Message base class.
Imagine you want to email members of your organization to remind them to pay their dues. Or maybe you want to send personalized emails to students in your class with grades for their most recent assignments. These tasks are easy in Python.
An easy starting point for sending multiple personalized emails is to create a CSV (comma separated values) file that contains all the necessary personal information. (Make sure you don’t share other people’s personal information without their consent.) A CSV file can be thought of as a simple table, where the first row is often the column headers.
, which I have saved in the same folder as my Python code. It contains the names, addresses, and grades of a group of fictional people. i used
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Builds to make sure all email ends up in my inbox, which is [email protected] in this example:
When creating the CSV file, make sure to separate your values with commas, no spaces around them.
The following code example shows you how to open a CSV file and loop through its content rows (excluding the header row). I printed this out to make sure the code works properly before you email it to all of your contacts
If the values in the CSV file have spaces on either side, you can remove them using
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You can insert personalized content into a message by using str.format() to fill in the placeholders in parentheses. For example,
As of Python 3.6, string formatting can be done more elegantly using f-strings, but this requires placeholders to be defined before the f-string. To set the email at the beginning of the script and to populate the placeholders for each contact when restoring the CSV file, oldest
With this in mind, you can create a generic message body with placeholders, which could be
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