How To Send Mail Through Smtp Server – Let’s take a look at what happens “under the hood” when you send an email. This article covers the original research and implementation of the SMTP protocol based on existing documentation. Of course, SMTP has evolved over time, but this article will cover the main elements of this communication process.
We’ll discuss SMTP responsibilities, look at communication between an SMTP client and recipient SMTP servers, and finally use Terminal to send email by sending SMTP commands to an SMTP server.
How To Send Mail Through Smtp Server
If you’ve ever configured an email client before, you’ve probably seen terms like IMAP, POP, and SMTP. While IMAP and POP are the protocols used to receive emails from a mailbox, SMTP is the sending protocol. In a separate article, we will take a closer look at IMAP and POP.
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SMTP is part of the application layer of the TCP/IP protocol and traditionally operates on port 25. It uses a process called “shop and forward” which is used to forward your email across different networks. As part of the SMTP process, there are small software services called mail delivery agents that manage the sending of e-mail and its final delivery to the recipient’s mailbox. SMTP not only defines this entire communication flow, it can also ensure that e-mail is delayed at the sender’s site, the recipient’s site, or an intermediary server.
TLDR: SMTP defines the communication protocol that specifies how e-mail is transferred from your computer’s mail transfer agent, which can span multiple networks, to the mail transfer agent on the SMTP server.
User Agent (UA): An application used to send and receive e-mail (Outlook, Mozilla, etc.) Mail Transfer Agent/Message Transfer Agent (MTA): The correct process on the SMTP server helps to send e-mail to the recipient and deliver the e-mail to the user’s mailbox. help manage mailings. MTA often helps maintain a mail queue so delivery attempts can be scheduled when a remote server is unavailable. An MTA usually has a special software unit called a mail delivery agent or message delivery agent (MDA) that is responsible for delivering an email message to a local recipient’s mailbox, while an MTA focuses more on sending email from an SMTP server to an SMTP server.
When a user sends an email, through a user agent—for example, Apple’s Mail app—the client’s SMTP process opens a TCP connection to an SMTP process somewhere on the server (ie, smtp.gmail.com) on port 25. At the initial signature, the client and server SMTP processes engage in a short query-response dialog to send an email. We will monitor the flow closely.
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Consider the main use cases of the SMTP protocol (where e-mail is probably sent within the same organization):
In reality, however, an email message may pass through several intermediate MTAs (mail gateways) on its way to its intended recipient.
An additional advantage of email gateways is that they can take email prepared by another process and convert it to SMTP format before sending it or vice versa.
Soon we’ll look at the actual commands and downloads between the client and server SMTP processes. Before we do that, let’s take a look at how email content is organized.
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An email consists of two parts – the envelope and the message/body – just like traditional mail.
An envelope contains sender and receiver fields, as well as some additional metadata (eg timestamp, MIME properties, etc.) The fields in an envelope field are typically structured like this:
Let’s take a look at today’s headlines. Here are Caviar’s promotional email headers:
As you can see, the header fields can contain more information about the sender and receiver. These items are the least demanding.
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Any text that follows an envelope is classified as body. Subject is the user who created the email content. The body section is usually terminated by a null reference, a blank line, or one of several possible termination characters (ie “.”).
Envelopes are all distributed separately from the mail department. Primary SMTP servers try to guess the sender/recipient information in an email before worrying about it.
These fields are sent to the SMTP server using the MAIL FROM and RCPT TO commands (we’ll take a closer look at these commands).
On an SMTP host server, it will periodically check the contents of your mailbox for new emails and forward or forward them as needed.
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As mentioned earlier, SMTP is part of the application layer of the TCP/IP protocol. As a result, it should come as no surprise that an SMTP contact uses DNS to determine the IP address of the SMTP server.
Once the recipient’s IP address is obtained, the client’s SMTP server can connect to the SMTP server in a short sequence.
HELO helps the SMTP server identify the client’s SMTP protocol and always goes with the fully qualified server name. This is usually sent once per session. After this verification step is completed, the client’s SMTP protocol can send as many emails as it wants.
TARGET – Identifies the sender’s email address to the SMTP protocol (ie from the email field)
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After the RCPT TO: MAIL FROM command, the client’s SMTP server can issue one or more RCPT TO commands to specify the email addresses of all recipients.
Note: This is an email pre-order. This is a command that tells the SMTP server that it should be ready to receive ASCII content, such as a null line or “.” Ends with
We’ll see these commands using Terminal shortly, but it’s important to know that these commands are sent as ASCII text, which makes it possible to write mail clients and servers on any platform.
Although the list of SMTP commands is much larger than this list, HELP, FROM, RCPT TO, DATA, and QUIT are important commands.
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After initialization is complete (HELO step), the SMTP session is started. The client first sends the sender’s and recipient’s email addresses individually (think envelope) to the SMTP server. After each client command, the server will respond by sending “250 OK” if the server accepts and confirms the command. Otherwise, it will send an error message, usually with “550”.
After receiving confirmation of these two fields, the client’s SMTP process sends the email body to the server.
Here’s an example of an entire stream from Wikipedia, take a moment to look at it – we’ll simulate this exact stream using Telnet, Python, and Terminal:
S:220 smtp.example.com ESMTP Postfix C:HELO relay.example.com S:250 smtp.example.com Nice to meet you C:MAIL FROM: S:250 Ok C:RCPT TO : S:250 Ok C:RCPT TO: S:250 Ok C:DATA S:354 Full data with . C: From: “Bob Example” C: To: Alice Example C: Cc: [email protected] C: Date: Tuesday, 15 Jan 2008 16:02:43 -0500 C: Subject: Test Message C: C: Hi Alice. C: This test message has 5 header fields and 4 lines in the message body. C: Your friend, C: Bob C:. S: 250 Suit: 12345 Row S: SUITE S: 221 Bye
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We have confirmed 250 from the server, so we are ready to go to the next step. The envelope header is the sender and receiver.
“354 complete data. ” tells you to type to complete the DATA section of the email. ” in a new way.
Order Note Close Transport Channel Response 221. Each SMTP protocol comes with an acknowledgment from the SMTP server.
What we just touched on in the terminal is a typical example of the SMTP process and, in most cases, every time you send an email to your client.
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Hope you enjoyed this deep dive into the SMTP process, and if you find any algorithms or techniques, please leave a comment below! SMTP servers are complex, and it’s easy to feel overwhelmed when you first dip your toe into the world of email. To help you with your email sending needs – specifically, SMTP server for sending email – we’ve compiled a list of the most common SMTP server questions so you’ll be an SMTP expert in no time.
What does SMTP mean? We’re glad you asked. SMTP stands for Simple Transfer Protocol, and is the tool used by mail servers to send, receive, and/or send outgoing mail between email senders and recipients.
The SMTP email server will have an address (or addresses) that can be set by the mail client or application you are using and is usually smtp.serveraddress.com. For example, Gmail’s SMTP server is smtp.gmail.com, and Twilio’s
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