How To Send Email In Linux Shell Script – In Linux, all tasks from running services to loading and unloading modules are performed by programs, and all programs must be executed. You use commands to access all basic kernel functions. A scripting shell is a way to automate such tasks, and Bash is one of the languages that has enough capabilities to be called a scripting language, as well as a language that can be used to program on the POSIX platform for small tasks.
You can send an email using the command ‘Mail’ or ‘Sendmail’. You must install all required packages before using these commands. Create a file called “sendmail.sh” and add the following code to send the email.
How To Send Email In Linux Shell Script
All tutorials are for informational and educational purposes only and were made using our own routers, servers, websites and other vulnerable free resources. does not contain any illegal activity. We believe that ethical hacking, information security and cyber security should be familiar topics for everyone who uses digital information and computers. Hacking Truth is against information misuse and we advise against it. Please enter to the word hacking as ethical hacking or penetration testing when the word is used. We do not promote, encourage, support or encourage any illegal activity or hacking. In this quick tip, we’ll discuss how to use script output as the body of an email message from the Linux command line. This is perfect for anyone who wants to run a command and send the output to an email address. When used with cron, it can be an effective method of obtaining information about your system or a specific application.
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First, you need a program that can send email from the Linux command line. I have used Mailx for several years and recommend it.
Before we begin, you MUST make sure your system is configured to send email. Once you are sure it is, you can go down. If you need to configure your system, read “How to send email via ISP SMTP with Postfix”.
To test how Mail works on your system, simply send an email using our newly installed Mailx program.
If your system is configured correctly, you will receive a copy of the hosts file by email.
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For more information about sending files, read “Send a file as an attachment or email body from the command line”.
Sending the output of a command is different from sending an already established text file via e-mail. You just can’t redirect or you get an ambiguous redirect error.
You can now run a script or run a command and send the output to an email address.
It’s very easy to run a command and send the output to an email. Understanding how a pipeline operator works is integral. Check out the links below for further reading. Historically, the shell was the native command line interpreter for Unix-like systems. Over the years it has proven to be one of the main features of Unix and has grown into a whole new topic in itself. Linux offers a number of powerful shells with robust functionality, including Bash, Zsh, Tcsh and Ksh. One of the most amazing features of these shells is their programmability. Creating simple yet effective Linux shell scripts to perform everyday tasks is very easy. What’s more, a modest knowledge of this topic will turn you into a Linux power user in no time. Stay tuned for a detailed introduction to the Unix Scripting Shell.
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Most shell scripts implemented in Linux include a bash shell. However, advanced users who are given choices often use other shells such as Zsh and Ksh. For our examples, we will mostly stick to bash scripts for Linux due to their great popularity and extreme utility. However, our editors have also tried to outline some examples of shell scripts that deal with non-Bash shells. As a result, you will find a fair amount of familiarity with various shell scripts.
Bash, known as Bourne Again Shell, is the default command line interpreter in most Linux distributions today. It is an upgrade from the previous Bourne shell, which was first introduced in Unix version 7. If you learn bash shell scripting, you will understand other shell scripts much faster. Try these simple examples yourself to get first-hand experience.
Programmers often learn new languages by learning Hello World. This is a simple program that prints the string “hello world” to standard output. Next, using an editor like vim or nano, create a hello-world.sh file and copy the lines below.
The echo command is used to output information to Bash. It is similar to the C ‘printf’ function and offers many of the usual options, including escape sequences and redirection.
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Run the script to see what it does. The -e option is used to tell Echo that the string passed to it contains special characters and requires extended functionality.
Comments are useful for documentation and are a prerequisite for high-quality codebases. It is common practice to insert comments in code that handles critical logic. To comment out a line, use the # (scatter) character in front. For example, check the bash script example below.
This script will output the number 60. First, check how comments are used with # before a few lines. However, the first line is an exception. It’s called a shebang and tells the system which interpreter to use when running this script.
Many people use multiline comments to document their shell scripts. See how this is done in the following script called comment.sh.
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The while loop construct is used to execute a command multiple times. To better understand this concept, take a look at the following script called while.sh.
The for loop is another widely used Bash shell construct that allows users to efficiently repeat code. A simple example is shown below.
Save this code in a file named for.sh and run it with ./for.sh. Don’t forget to make it work. This program should print the numbers from 1 to 10.
Getting user input is critical to implementing user interaction in your scripts. The shell script example below will show how to receive user input from within a shell program.
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So the read construct followed by the variable name is used to get the user input. The input is stored in this variable and can be accessed with the $ character.
If statements are the most common conditional construct in a Unix scripting shell, they have the form below.
Statements are executed only if CONDITION is true. The fi keyword is used to mark the end of an if statement. A quick example is shown below.
The above program shows the output only if the number passed as input is more than ten. -gt means more than; similar to -lt for less than; – only for less than the same; and -ge for more than equal. In addition, they are mandatory [[ ]].
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Combining the else construct with if gives much better control over the logic of your script. A simple example is shown below.
The AND operator allows our program to check whether or not multiple conditions are met simultaneously. All parts separated by the AND operator must be true. Otherwise, the statement containing the AND will return false. To better understand how AN works, see the following Bash script example.
The OR operator is another key construct that allows us to implement complex, robust programming logic in our scripts. Unlike AND, an expression from the OR operator returns true if one of its operands is true. Returns false only if each operand separated by OR is false.
This simple example shows how the OR operator works in Linux shell scripts. It declares the user the winner only if he enters the number 15 or 45. || character represents the OR operator.
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The elif statement stands for else if and provides a convenient means of implementing chaining logic. Find out how elif works by evaluating the following example.
The above program is self-contained, so we won’t break it down line by line. Instead, change parts of the script, such as variable names and values, to see how they work together.
Switch construction is another powerful feature offered by Linux bash scripts. It can be used where nested conditions are needed, but you don’t want to use complex if-else-elif chains. Consider the following example.
The conditions are written between the keywords case and esac. *) is used to match all entries except 100 and 200.
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Getting arguments directly from the shell can be useful in many cases. The example below shows how to do this in Bash.
Run this script with two additional parameters after the name. I named it test.sh and the calling process is described below.
So $1 is used to access the first argument, $2 is used for the second, and so on. Then finally $# is used to get the total number of arguments.
It should return X + Y = 144. The arguments here are stored in ‘[email protected]’ and the script retrieves them with the cut Linux command.
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